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方振宁

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建筑与良知  

2012-01-05 09:42:00|  分类: 建筑评论 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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序:建筑与良知 方振宁
文明的持续
其实我们无法定义什么是“新”的中国建筑,因为中国建筑如同其它的中国产业一样,其发展速度之快,在人们的预料之外。所谓新,只是建筑发展中的一个片断。而我们在维特拉设计博物馆,首次举办中国新建筑展,只是呈现了从2000年至2010年这十年间的片断。
其实,定义“中国建筑”也存在问题。什么是中国建筑?我们在这里把“中国”这个概念,限定在“建筑中国”这个范畴。只要对中国的历史有所了解的人,都会知道中国文明实际上是一个连续的文明,是由于不断的和外界交流和融合才使得这一文明得以持续,中国的建筑也是这一文明的一部分。然而中国文明的传承中,从来都非常看重道德和技术之间的关联性,即所谓的“道德”,实际上是“道”和“德”组成的单词,“道”是对真理的领悟,“德”是品行,两者合一才是我们期待的境界。
建筑师和时代
当今中国的建筑和历史上的建筑不同之处在于,在这个全球化的时代,建筑师的设计走到跨国时代。建筑作为一项产业,在任何一个国家和地区都会受到经济发展的制约,当一个国家崛起时,建筑业成长的数字就会成为最令人兴奋的指标,中国建筑业的规模和成长速度尤其受到世界的注目。中国的新建筑就是在这一大背景下展来的,而中国建筑师和参与中国建筑设计项目竞标的外国建筑师,得以在一个平台上竞争,而事实是,境外建筑师和事务所几乎拿到当下中国醒目的标志性建筑项目。从而在中国引起一场持续十年之久的争论,那就是一些保守的人认为,这是把中国变成了外国建筑师的实验场。然而其妙的是,中国新一代建筑师,就是在这种争论中成长和成熟起来。可见,中国对世界开放建筑市场的做法,也为中国自己的建筑师们提供了一个历史性的平台。
我们在此挑选的建筑师和他们的作品,可以看到他们在建筑设计上的思考和成熟度。所谓成熟,就是已经摆脱流行的国际主义建筑样式,用心去设计和营造与地域相关的建筑。虽然这十名建筑师中,百分之七十都是从海外回到中国的“海归派”,但是他们在中国本土接受的建筑学的教育,是他们在海外深造和成长的基础。而本土成长起来的建筑师,并不因为教育背景的不同与同世代建筑师存在差异,其实,建筑教育并不是塑造成功建筑师的决定因素,重要的是,建筑师本人拥有的睿智和良知。
心造与良知
“东风-中国新建筑2000-2010”是我们在2009年布鲁塞尔举办的“心造-中国当代建筑的前沿”展的继续,这个展览在欧罗巴艺术节期间得到很好的反响。“心造”,指的是建筑师设计的动机和创意的缘起,这是我在2008年提出的概念,于2009年在题为《当代的力量》一文中做了阐述:
“心造”是什么意思?中文中有“构造”、“建造”和“营造”,都是和手、心、活动有关,好的设计来自心的活动,心是一种道德的力量,而建筑是道德的外在表现。“心造”是“构造”、“建造”和“营造”的升级版,“心造”就是以心造物,用心去营造理想的建筑和城市。中国文化的文本中有《天工开物》和《文心雕龙》。“天工开物”也可以理解为“天工开悟”,“文心雕龙”可以延伸为“文心营造”。“心造”强调人类要和自然和谐的生活,设计的力受心力的支配,设计之力要与自然力相配合,才能营造出好的建筑和城市。因此,持续的建筑和城市,是心造的衍生。因此,把“心造”定为“中国当代建筑的前沿”展的主题,以此反应中国建筑界,在持续发展的建筑设计过程中的道德姿态。
其实“心造”和“良知”是不可分的,那么为什么要在这里强调“良知”?我们发现,一些建筑师并不缺少设计的才能,也在建筑这个行业中经营了许久,已有相当的知名度。但是在中国,却很难受到尊重和获得好的口碑,其原因就是,他们长期停留在概念性的形式主义的设计阶段,和在不同的场所反复的说一些空洞的没有内涵的话,这样的素质,必然反映在他们的设计中。
“东风”本来是一个有着政治含义的词汇,可是在全球化的今天,是东还是西,在地理上已经已经没有那么重要了,那么在此使用这个词汇,是强调建筑的地域性,全球化和地域性是两极。地域性的含义是多元化,重视多元化的价值,这个世界才会丰富,我认为全球化不能以牺牲地域性为代价,这个展览就是反应我们在这一点上的态度。
作为衡量尺度的良知
其实在中国,无非是两大类建筑成为建筑师所面对的设计对象:一是政府行为的标志性建筑,我们把它看做是城市的橱窗和国家的明信片,二是为了公民的建筑,比如灾后重建的建筑和普通的住宅。而后者的建造量和品质都是非常大和重要的,并不是所有的建筑师都可以胜任这样的设计,当良知成为衡量品质设计的尺度时,建筑师就会在这个分水岭面前见分晓,或为持续性建筑做贡献,或在人们不注意的时候销声匿迹。
有良知的设计和平庸的设计的差别,在于它是否能拨动那一根心弦,打动人心。我们把设计的地域性因素,划分在良知的领域,是因为在当下的中国,无论是对自然景观,还是对有历史记忆的场所和建筑物,对仍然处在贫困线之下的地区的援助性设计希望小学,对经历过重大灾难的地区的重建,等等,除了用心之外,还需要良知,这就是为什么我把建筑和良知挂钩的理由。
2010. 9. 19,巴塞尔-北京途中

(建筑与良知:此文为2010年为德国维特拉设计博物馆东风-中国新建筑展所写的画册前言)
Preface:Architecture and Conscience Fang Zhenning The Continuation of a Civilization Actually it is rather intricate to define what "New" Chinese Architecture really is. Just like other industries in China, Architecture is undergoing really fast and unprecedented development. The so-called "New Architecture" is just another phase in the architectural development process of China. It is for this sole basis that we are hosting for the first time a Chinese Architecture Exhibition here in Vitra Design Museum only exhibiting segments of the last ten years of Architecture in China, from the year 2000 to 2010. In fact, it is not an easy trial to define Chinese architecture. What is Chinese architecture? Its very definition is the key to understanding its parts, and determining the notion of China within the scope of Chinese Architecture. Only those with a deep understanding of Chinese history can understand that Chinese civilization is a continual civilization that has constantly been exposed and integrated with other cultures, of which Chinese architecture is a sub product. Therefore in the inheritance of it has always regarded as important the connection between technology and morality. In Chinese the so-called "道德", translated as "morals" is a word composed by characters "道" (dào) and "德" (dé). "道" is the understanding of the truth, and "德" is "character". It is their combination, taken together that expresses our expectations, what we are looking forward to. Architecture across Generations Present day Chinese architecture differs from the architecture seen in Chinese history. This shift is a direct an influence of the age of globalization that has affected all the new styles and techniques of present day architectural designs. Construction, as an industry in any country or area, will be restricted by economic development. However as a country enters an economic rise the index growth figures of its construction industry reflect the power of this sector. Presently, the scope and growth of China' s construction industry has earned it the attention of the whole world. It is under this setting that China' s new architecture has had its beginnings. Now Chinese and foreign architects participate in competitive bids, and both compete on a single platform. However the fact still remains that foreign architects and firms have won virtually all project bids for markedly symbolic Chinese landmarks, which in the past several decades has spurred continuous debate. Some conservative voices believe that this phenomenon will make China into an "experimentation ground" for foreign architects. However, what is wonderful is that it is in this kind of contention that the new generation of Chinese architects have developed and matured. It is thus clear that China' s opening to the world market has also offered a historic platform to Chinese architects. In selecting architects and their works, it is good to look at the maturity and thinking of their architectural design. The so-called "mature" refers to an architect' s ability to remove popular international architectural styles, and to use his own talent and skill to design and build relevant structures. Although seven of these ten architects are overseas Chinese, the education that they received in China is considered rather basic in comparison to the advanced studies and growth they received abroad. However, the disparity existing between mainland and overseas-educated students is not in the quality of the education received. In fact, their education has been found not to be a deciding factor in shaping successful architects. Instead, it is in the wisdom and conscience that they possess. Heart-Made and Conscience The "Rising-East New Chinese Architecture 2000-2010" is a continuation of "Heart-Made The Cutting-Edge of Chinese Contemporary Architecture" exhibition held in Brussels in 2009, which received a very good response during the festival Europalia China. "Heart-Made" refers to the origin of the originality and the creativity of the architect' s designs. This is a concept that I put forward in the year of 2008. In 2009 in a paper entitled THE POWER OF OUR TIME there is a section that elaborates on this idea: What is the meaning of "Heart-Made" ? In English, the Chinese characters mean "to compose", "to build" and "to construct", and all of them are related to hand, heart and human activities. Nice design comes from heart, and the heart is the force behind morality. Furthermore, architects interpret the meaning of what is moral. From the Heart, or "Heart-Made" is considered to be an updated version of "Compose", "Build" and "Construct". It means to create something by heart, so as to create an ideal architectural structure or an ideal city. There are two notable pieces of Chinese historic literature in history: one is called TIAN GONG KAI WU (《天工开物》) and the other one is called WEN XIN DIAO LONG (《文心雕龙》) . These pieces are literally translated as "products created by nature and technology" and "dragon-carving (rhetorical expression meaning literature writings) by one with literature in one' s heart" . "Tian Gong Kai Wu" can also be understood as "products created by enlightenment", and "Wen Xin Diao Long" can be elaborated as "to create by the heart" . "Heart-Made" emphasizes an image of a harmonious life between human beings and nature. The power of design comes from the heart, and it has to be compatible with the power of nature, with which we could be able to build nice structures and environments. A permanent architectural structure or a city can be described as a continuation of what I refer to by "Heart-Made" . Therefore, we have decided to have "Heart-Made" as the main theme of the exhibition of "The Cutting-Edge of Chinese Contemporary Architecture" in order to show our moral attitudes towards the process of permanent development in Chinese architecture and design. In fact, "Heart-Made" and "Conscience" are inseparable, so why do we need to emphasize "Conscience" ? We' ve discovered there are a few architects that don' t lack a talent for architecture. They possess a life time of experiences in their fields and excellent reputations. However in China, it' s hard to achieve a good reputation and gain respect. The reason for this present state of events is that the architectural mindset is still stuck in the socialist period and with the methods of the past. Participants are commonly guilty of speaking in empty and unnecessarily complex language, which is highly reflected in the quality of their design work. The original implication of word "Rising-East" held a political connotation. However, in the globalized world of today, the geographic East and West have become less important. In the reading its meaning and usage is to emphasize the regionalism of the architecture, and to clarify that it' s on opposing poles with Globalization. The implied meaning of regionalism is diversity, and it shows that attaching great importance to the value of diversification and implies that to embrace it the world would become rich. If globalization comes at the expense of sacrificing regionalism, then this exhibition will show the Chinese architects attitude towards this situation. As a conscience of measurement Actually in China, there are basically two main classes of buildings that architects must be familiar with: One class is landmark municipal buildings, which can be viewed as a window to the city and a postcard for the country. The second class is civil buildings, such as the post-disaster reconstruction buildings and common housing. In the latter, the structure and the quality are extremely imperative, and it' s not every architect who is qualified and capable of creating such designs. And so when intuitive knowledge becomes a scale of measurement by which the quality of an architect' s work can be measured, architects will either make a contribution to sustainable architecture and to society, or simply vanish from the public scene. The underlying difference of design work between those with conscience and mediocre ones lies in whether the origin of the idea for the design comes from the heart. We have placed all the design factors of regionalism in the field of conscience, for the reason that in contemporary China, whether it is in a natural landscape or a place or a building with historical significance. In a poverty-stricken area designing a hope-inspiring primary school is the best answer, whereas in a major disaster-affected area reconstruction steps should be taken, and so on. So in addition to having the intention to do well, it is necessary to possess conscience to realize one' s intentions. This is the reason why conscience is linked together with architecture. 9. 19. 2010, Basel - On route to Beijing

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